When did the Kannada language begin?

Kannada language , also Canarian or Called Kannana , Member of the Dravidian language family and the official language of the state of Karnataka in southern India. Kannada is also spoken in the states bordering Karnataka. Early 21st century census data showed that around 38 million people spoke Kannada as their first language. Another 9 to 10 million are said to speak it as a secondary language. In 2008, the Indian government granted Kannada Classical Language status.

Read more on this
Dravidian languages: Kannada
Kannada is the official language of the state of Karnataka. Inscriptions in Kannada date from the 5th century, while the first ...

Kannada is the second oldest of the four great Dravidian languages ​​with a literary tradition. The oldest Kannada inscription was discovered in the small community of Halmidi and dates from around 450 ce. The Kannada script developed from southern variants of the Ashokan Brahmi script. The Kannada script is closely related to the Telugu script. both emerged from an old Kannarese script (Karnataka). Three historical stages are recognized: Old Kannada (450–1200 ce), Middle Kannada (1200–1700 ce) and Modern Kannada (1700 ce - today).

The word order is subject-object-verb, as in the other Dravidian languages. Verbs are marked for person, number and gender. The case-marking pattern nominative-accusative with experiencer subjects the dative under inflection. Most of the diffraction is done by applying it, especially suffixes. The language uses typical Dravidian retroflex consonants (sounds in which the tip of the tongue is rolled back against the roof of the mouth) such as / ḍ /, / und / and / ṭ /, as well as a number of voiced and unvoiced aspirates from the Indo-Aryan language family.

Three regional varieties of Kannada can be identified. The southern variety is associated with the cities of Mysore and Bangalore, the northern with Hubli-Dharwad and the coast with Mangalore. The prestige varieties are based on the Mysore-Bangalore variety. Social cultivars are currently characterized by education and class or caste, which leads to at least three different social dialects: Brahman, non-Brahman and Dalit (formerly sacrosanct). A diglossia or dichotomy also exists between formal literary varieties and spoken varieties.

Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. Subscribe today

Kannada began with the literature Kavirajamarga by Nripatunga (9th century ce) and was followed by Pampa's Bharata (941 ce). The earliest surviving grammar is from Nagavarma and dates back to the early 12th century; The grammar of Keshiraja (1260 ce) is still respected. The Kannada literature was influenced by the Lingayat (Virasaiva) and Haridasa movements. In the 16th century, the Haridasa movement of the indigenous devotional song reached its climax with Purandaradasa and Kanakadasa, which was considered the father of Karnatak music, the classical music of South India.