Is the doctrine of the Trinity a wrong concept

Satan's deadliest lie: "God the Trinity" - God the Father, God the Son, God the Holy Spirit

Created: Saturday 23 November 2013 Last updated: Thursday 05 July 2018



Today's “Christianity” consists of numerous opposing and often competing churches, denominations, organizations and groups. Some of their doctrines differ little, some very strongly from one another. But what connects almost the entire alleged "Christianity" is the belief in the "Triune God". From Catholics to Anglicans, Lutherans, Baptists, Methodists and Seventh-day Adventists - all of them believe in the Trinity with conviction.

The triune God consists of the three God-Persons, God the Father, God the Son and God the Holy Spirit. However, together they are only one god. This dogma teaches that there is not ONE God alone, the Almighty Father and one Mediator, His Son Yahushuah, but that there are three almighty Almighty Persons. However, the scriptures say:

"But that is eternal life that they recognize you, the only true God [JaHuWaH], and whom you have sent ... [Yahushuah, the Messiah]." (John 17.3)

"So for us there is only ONE God [JaHuWaH], the Father, of where all things are and we For Him; and one ... [Savior, the Messiah Yahushuah], by that all things are and we by Him. "(1 Corinthians 8: 6)

Where is the third God person “Holy Spirit” in these verses and why is the Messiah not also called God in this context? According to the doctrine of the Trinity, the Messiah is not really the Son of the Almighty, but one of these three almighty beings. He is just as equal to God and almighty as "God the Father" and "God the Holy Spirit". The Holy Spirit is also a person. This somewhat confused theory is supported by the evangelical theologian Dr. Lothar Gassmann formulates as follows:

“There is one true God (monotheism). He works and reveals himself as Father, Son and Holy Spirit. The Father is God, the Son is God, the Holy Spirit is God - existent in essence, and yet in three people.“1

The Catholic Catechism formulates the same triune God in a similar way:

“The Trinity is one. We do not confess three gods, but rather one god in three persons [...] The three divine persons are really different from one another. The one God is not 'as it were for himself alone'. 'Father', 'Son,' Holy Spirit 'are not simply names that designate modes of being of the divine being, because they are really different from one another… ”[…] The Catholic faith… consists in the fact that we are one God in the Trinity worship of unity by neither mixing persons nor separating substance: that is, another is the Person of the Father, another is the Person of the Son, another is the Person of the Holy Spirit; but Father, Son and Holy Spirit have one deity, equal glory, equal eternal sublimity. "2


A mystery

JaHuWaH wants us to know who He is (Amos 4:13; Hosea 6,3.6; Habakkuk 2:14; 2 Peter 1: 2; 1 Thessalonians 4: 3-5). The Trinity cannot be explained biblically or logically. Theologians therefore often try to explain this doctrine by pointing out that it cannot be understood and that it is a mystery. On the website of the Evangelical Church Germany is it [called:

“Trinity (Latin: Trinity) describes the revelation of God and the belief in one God in three forms as Father, Son and Holy Spirit. Hardly any other topic of the Christian faith has (become) as puzzling as the Christian confession of the triune God.3

The deity of the Trinity is indeed a mystery and therefore cannot be understood by humans either. However, this dogma cannot be found in the Bible. In the Holy Scriptures in particular, the information about the Almighty and His Son is very clear. It can also be clearly understood what the Holy Spirit is if one has not been shaped by church dogmas and traditions. Whoever believes in a “mystery deity” applies the Messiah's words just as they were addressed to the unbelievers and the incomprehensible in His time: You will actually not get the “secrets” of the kingdom of YehuWaH revealed. When the disciples asked Yahushuah why he was speaking to the people in parables, He answered them:

"Because it is given to you understand the secrets of the kingdom of heaven; but it is not given to them. For whoever has it will be given, and he will have plenty; but whoever does not have what he has will also be taken from him. That's why I speak to them in parables, because they see and doch cannot see or hear and yet neither hear nor understand; And Isaiah's prophecy is fulfilled in them, which reads: "With your ears you will hear and not understand, and with your eyes you will see and not know!" (Matthew 13: 12-14)

In Acts 17: 22-30 we are given insight into the faith of the Gentile Athenians in the time of the apostles. They too were convinced of the mysterious deities and worshiped them. When Paul arrived in Athens, he also noticed an altar that "the unknown god“Was dedicated. (Acts 17:23). The Athenians worshiped a god they didn't even know. Paul tried to bring the only true Creator God close to them. He then assured them that the Almighty would overlook this ignorance, but now urged them to repent for this false belief, that is, to repent (v. 30), “because He has set a day on which He will righteously cover the world will judge through a man whom He has designated and whom He authenticated for all by raising Him from the dead ”(v. 31).

Paul speaks of ONE God, Almighty JaHuWaH and His Son who came in His name. He is not talking about three gods who are united and thus represent one god together. As it was then, so it is today. King Solomon knew:

What was once will be again, and what once happened will happen again. And there is nothing new under the sun. ”(Ecclesiastes 1: 9)

Paul also makes it very clear that the knowledge of the Creator is NOT a mystery or mystery and He also warns in the name of the Almighty what will happen to those who make it a mystery:

"For ... [JaHuWaHs] anger is revealed from heaven against all wickedness and injustice of men who have the truth in injustice, because that which is known by God is manifest among them, for God has revealed it to them - because the invisible of Him is seen, both His Eternal Power [His Holy Spirit] and His Divinitythat are perceived in what is made from the creation of the world -, so that they may be without excuse, because, knowing God, they neither glorified Him as God nor offered thanks to Him, but fell into foolishness in their deliberations and their foolish hearts were darkened. In pretending to be wise, they have become fools. " (Romans 1: 18-22)

In fact, Almighty YahuWaH is unknown to the Bible to millions of people who worship a deity invented by humans - inspired by Lucifer. Theologians and clergymen have sought the opinion and outlook of philosophers, scholars and alleged experts instead of heeding the statements of the only true Elohim (God) JaHuWaH - in His Word. Centuries ago, these religious leaders presented their findings to people who were only too willingly receptive to it without reviewing it.

See also: Is God a Mystery?


Pagan-philosophical-papal origin

Long before the apostolic era, there were numerous variants of the three-part deities. They are rooted in pagan religions and mythologies. These triads of gods have their origin in Babylon with Nimrod, his mother-wife Semiramis and the son Tammuz and spread over Egypt (Isis, Horus, Set) to Rome. In India today, the “Trimurti” in particular is revered as a triad of gods. The deity consists of Brahma, the creator, Vishnu, the sustainer and Shiva, the destroyer. Krishna became famous as the incarnate son of Vishnu. See: "What does the doctrine of the Trinity have to do with paganism and the number 666?"

After the first apostolic generation of Yahushuah's followers died out, contradicting teachings began to spread about the Almighty and His Son, and the church was already shrouded in a certain darkness. The historian Jesse Lyman Hurlbut writes about this period in world history:

“Of all times in world history, this is the least known about. Fifty years after the life of the apostle Paul, a curtain hangs over the church, through which we try in vain to see through; and when he finally stands up around AD 120 with the writings of the earliest church fathers, we will find a church that is in many ways very different from the church in the days of the apostles Peter and Paul. "4

The church of the second century already showed a clear and dramatic difference from the original church of the apostles. The apostate new church, infused with pagan teachings, was labeled "Orthodox," while "the little remnant" of faithful who could not be "bought" were oppressed and persecuted.

“By the end of the second century, most of the churches had taken on a new form, the first simplicity disappeared. When the old disciples died, their children and new converts began to change the matter barely noticeably. "5

The development and formulation of the doctrine of the Trinity in the 4th century AD by the Roman bishops on behalf of Emperor Constantine was very much influenced by the then predominant Greek philosophy. This philosophy was largely based on Plato's (427-327 BC) theories. Since the concept of a triune God was common to all ancient pagan religions, Plato's philosophy was also pervaded by Trinitarian ideas. He defined the Trinity in such a way that the "first God" is the "highest being in the universe"; the "second god" is the "soul of the universe" and the "third god" reveals himself as the "spirit"6. People followed these pagan theories to find a definition for God and ignored the plain words of the Bible.

The Jewish philosopher Philo of Alexandria (approx. 20 BC to 50 AD) also exerted a certain influence on the development of the doctrine of the Trinity. He defined God as the Father who created everything, the Mother, the knowledge that the Creator possessed; and the only beloved son - this world. Philo was also heavily influenced by Greek philosophy.

As the visible church grew in power and the persecution increased, the remnant of the first church and true faith went underground. The result was that the “Christianity” of the second, third and fourth centuries had little in common with the practices and teachings of Christians of the first century.

Everyone who worships a triune God or, in other words, a God-Father, God-Son and God-Holy Spirit, follows traditional Greek philosophy. Paul reports in the New Testament about an apostasy, the "mystery of lawlessness" (2 Thessalonians 2,7), which already began to work in his time. He warned against the entry of false doctrines into the church that would divert believers from the truth.


A "different messiah", a "different spirit, a" different gospel "

Paul also warned the Corinthians about this “mystery of lawlessness”, which would manifest itself in the fact that people would forget “simplicity towards the Messiah”.

"But I fear that, just as the serpent seduced Eve with its cunning, your disposition could also be corrupted and turned away from simplicity towards ... [the Messiah]." (2 Corinthians 11: 3)

The simplicity or simplicity of knowing about the Messiah who revealed His Heavenly Father and "only true God YaHuWaH" (John 17.3) was forgotten very soon in the first century. As a result, Satan could manipulate people's minds and give them false teachings about the Creator. What kind of teachings are these? Paul explains it a little more precisely in the following verse:

"Because if the one who comes to you, one others ... [Yahushuah] proclaim that we have not proclaimed, or if you have one different mind that you have not received, or a different gospelthat you did not accept, you endured it well. ”(2 Corinthians 11: 4)

Paul prophesies that “another Yahushuah” would be proclaimed. In fact, it did not take long before a completely “different Messiah” was preached. The son of JaHuWaH was declared the 2nd person of the Godhead and called "Jesus". It is not the Messiah who came in His Father's name. This one has a very specific name that his father gave him. His name means: "JaHuWaH is salvation". “Jesus”, on the other hand, has no meaning in the Hebrew language.

The Messiah certainly never called himself "Jesus" and the people of his time did not know him by this name either. A good example of this is Saul's (later Paul) encounter with the Messiah. As Saul, he persecuted the followers of Yahushuah. The Messiah appeared to him, introducing himself by His Hebrew name:

“But when we all fell to the ground, I heard a voice talking to me and in Hebrew language say: Saul! Saul! Why are you persecuting me? It will be hard for you to hit the sting! But I said: Who are you, Lord? But he said: I am (Jesus) JaHuWschuaHwhom you are persecuting! "Acts 26: 14-15)

This name reveals everything! He reveals Heavenly Father. Saul knew that he was the literal Son of the Almighty YesHuWaH encountered. The son got the name of the father, because the son does everything on behalf of his father. And the Father fulfills everything through His Son. The Almighty has a unique name that distinguishes Him from all the vain idols of Satan: JaHuWaH. This has the meaning of: I am who I am, the eternal being, who exists out of himself. (See: “Why We Call Almighty YehuWaH”). “Jesus”, on the other hand, was placed by the arch deceiver Lucifer as a second, almighty God next to the Father.

"Christianity" has not only taken over another Messiah, called "Jesus", from paganism, but with him also came a "different Gospel", which was brought into being by a "different spirit". And this “other spirit” revealed a completely different God to mankind - the Triune God. It is the spirit of Satan that makes people believe that they are worshiping the Almighty; in truth, however, it is himself who receives honor and worship in the Trinity.

The gospel is the good news of the character of YehuWaH, the Almighty, revealed by His Son Yahushuah (see John 17.3-7). When Yahushuah came to earth, He tried to put aside all misconceptions about the Almighty. He revealed the ONLY true God YahuWaH and whom He had sent, the Messiah Yahushuah. Only those who recognize and accept this will receive eternal life (John 17.3).

Whoever believes with conviction and in full knowledge that God is a triad of three persons (God the Father, God the Son and God the Holy Spirit), worships a “different Messiah” and is supported by a “different spirit”, the spirit of Satan - the third person of the deity - guided!

“Anyone who deviates and does not abide by the teaching of the Messiah does not have God [the Father]; whoever remains in the teaching of the Messiah has the Father and the Son. "(2 John 1: 9)

Satan, the "God of this world" (2 Corinthians 4: 4), tries to falsify every sacred principle of YehuWaH and every aspect of His plan of salvation and thereby even deceives "the whole world" (Revelation 12: 9). As an arch deceiver, he ABOVE ALL conceals the true knowledge of the Creator.It is He who wants the worship that is only due to the Almighty. (See: Who is the "third God, the Holy Spirit? Who wanted to be like God?)


Destroy the plan of salvation for humanity

The dogma of three equally almighty God-Persons in the Deity destroys the wonderful, harmonious and just plan of redemption of the Heavenly Father through His Son - who became fully human and actually resisted the temptation of Satan as a human being and actually died and for sinful people was raised from the dead as the first fruits of those who were asleep (1 Corinthians 15:20).

"He emptied himself, took the form of a servant and became like people; and invented in His outward appearance as a human being, He humbled Himself and became obedient to death, yes until death on the cross. That is why ... [Yahushuah] also exalted Him beyond measure and gave Him a name that is above all names, so that in the Name ... [Yahushuah] all the knees of those in heaven and on earth and under earth bow down, and all tongues confess that ... [Yahushuah the Messiah] is Lord, to the glory ... [YaHuWaHs] the Father."(Philippians 2: 8-11)

This is our Master and Redeemer, the true Messiah - the Son of Almighty JaHuWaH. He enables us to return to the pure, holy pre-Fall state by humiliating ourselves, living and dying as human beings so that we may be reconciled to His Father. The doctrine of the Trinity says, however, that the Messiah remained one of the almighty God-Persons on earth and at the same time man. His human nature did not die of His divine nature, for as an almighty God He was immortal. Accordingly, He did not actually die, rather the "second God, the Son" played the role of the Son.

“Who is the liar if not the one who denies that… [Yahushuah] is the… [Messiah]? That is the Antichrist who denies the Father and the Son. " (1 John 2:22)

Even before the foundation of our planet, Heavenly Father and His Son were very, very close, as Proverbs 8: 22-31 reveals. And yet JaHuWaH loves the fallen people so much that He gave this, His, ever loved, descended Son to death to die for our sins so that we can have eternal life. When we surrender ourselves to Him and do His will (Matthew 12:50), then the Spirit of Heavenly Father and the Son will live in us:

"For you are a temple of the living God, as ... [JaHuWaH] said:"I want to live in them and walk among them and will be their God, and they shall be My people "." (2 Corinthians 6:16)

“Yahushuah answered and said to him, If anyone loves Me, he will keep My word, and My Father will love him, and We will come to him and make a home with him."(John 14:23)

“But whoever attaches ... [JaHuWaH] is aSpirit with him. ... Or do you not know that your body is a temple of the Holy Spirit dwelling in you that you received from… [JaHuWaH] and that you do not belong to yourselves? ”” (1 Corinthians 6:17, 19)

These Bible verses not only show the infinite love of the Father and the Son for mankind, but also show that the Messiah was the Son of YehuWaH before He came to earth as a man, while He walked on earth, and also after He came back to earth His father rose to heaven. It also clearly shows that the Holy Spirit is not a third God Person, but rather the Spirit of the Father and the Son.

“Who now Confesses that ... [Yahushuah] is the Son ... of God [YaHuWaH]in whom God abides and he in God. And we recognized and believed the love that God [JaHuWaH] has for us. God [JaHuWaH] is love, and whoever remains in love remains in God and God in him. "(1 John 4: 15-15)

This infinite love of the Father is also expressed here. This love, when we understand it, we give back to Him by loving the Almighty Father and His Son, which is expressed in our keeping His commandments:

“Anyone who believes that ... [Yahushuah] is the Messiah is born of God [JaHuWaH]; and whoever loves the [JaHuWaH] who gave birth to him, loves also The one born of Him. This is how we know that we love God's children when we love God and keep His commandments. For that is the love of God [JaHuWaH], that we keep His commandments; and His commandments are not difficult. For everything that is born of God [JaHuWaH, the Father] overcomes the world; and our faith is the victory that conquered the world. Who is it who overcomes the world if not He who believes that ... [Yahushuah] is the Son of God? " (1 John 5: 1-5)

John writes here that we are children of YehuWaH if we love him and keep his commandments. For just like Yahushuah - His only begotten Son - the world as a human has overcome, we can also overcome the world through faith and loyalty to Him and become adopted sons and daughters of YehuWaH (2 Corinthians 6:18). We will be His literal sons and daughters. Because we are children of YehuWaH and thus also his "heirs, namely heirs of YehuWaH and co-heirs of the Messiah" (Romans 8:17). Through our Savior we are sanctified and that is why Yahushuah also calls us His brothers and sisters:

“For both The [Yahushuah] who sanctifies and those who are sanctified [His true followers] are all of one [the Father YahuWaH]. For this reason, He [the son of Yahushuah] is not ashamed to call them brothers… ”(Hebrews 2:11)

See also: Trinity dogma and personal salvation


"My people perish for lack of knowledge"

The question must be asked why so many people believe such a fable of a triune God, although the Bible is so easy to understand about this and also the logical common sense cannot admit a "biblical" trinity. The answer is to be found in that common sense alone does not reveal the sacred things if JaHuWaH does not reveal it to man (cf. Romans 1:19; 1 Corinthians 2:10). It is JaHuWaH's Holy Spirit who reveals the truth.

“Ask, and it will be given to you; seek and you will find; knock and it will be opened to you! ”(Matthew 7: 7)

JaHuWaH does not reveal Himself to the whole world, but only to those who are Him with a sincere heart search; especially the so-called "scholars" are usually not:

"At that time ... [Yahushuah] began and said: I praise you, Father, Almighty of heaven and earth, that You have hidden this from the wise and the wise and have revealed it to minors!" (Matthew 11:25)

When the Creator of the Universe warns, “You shall not have any other gods besides Me,” then He will hardly leave it to the arguments of the people to determine who He is. His word clearly shows that man is incapable of understanding spiritual things by himself (cf. Proverbs 14:12; Jeremiah 10:23).

"For the invisible of Him is seen, both His eternal power [the Holy Spirit] and His divinity, which are perceived in what is made from the creation of the world - so that they may be without excuse ..." (Romans 1:20)

JaHuWaH gives himself as the great "I AM WHO I AM" (YHWH = JaHuWaH). He also made His name known to the people of Israel in Exodus 3: 14-15 (unfortunately the name of the Almighty was replaced there with the pagan title "LORD"). Moses was instructed by the Almighty to represent this name to Pharaoh. JaHuWaH, the God of the Bible, clearly showed who He is and that He is different from ALL other supposed gods. He presents himself as "LIVING", which means that all other gods are non-existent. When He introduces himself with “I AM” it shows that other gods “ARE NOT”.

Everyone should check for himself whether he actually worships and worships this great “I AM” - the one true God - or at least a non-existent idol. Ancient Israel forgot the God of the Bible. The prophet Hosea therefore tells the people:

“My people perish for want of knowledge; because you have rejected the knowledgeThat is why I want to reject you too, that you are no longer my priest; and because you have forgotten the law of your God, I also want to forget your children! "(Hosea 4,6)

Paul speaks the unfortunate words:

“There is no one who is understanding; there is no one who seeks God "(Romans 3:11)

He goes on to describe people "who are always learning and yet can never come to the knowledge of the truth" (2 Timothy 3: 7). This particularly includes the knowledge of the truth about the Almighty; because only when I have a correct knowledge of the one who created everything and through whom I can find redemption, can I grow in the knowledge; only then can I also receive the right spirit in order to understand spiritual things. JaHuWaH reveals itself to each individual, and each individual must look for him, otherwise he cannot recognize him:

"No one can come to Me [Yahushuah the Son], unless the Father [JaHuWaH] pulls himwho sent Me; and I will raise him up on the last day. It is written in the prophets: “And they will all be taught by ... [JaHuWaH]«. Everyone who has heard and learned from the Father comes to Me ”(John 44-45).

The Holy Spirit of the Father will teach people who are also taught by Him and who do not rely on the pastor, church leader or pastor for these spiritual things. Because these could count among those who “considered themselves wise” but “became fools” (Romans 1:22) and now as “blind guides for the blind” (Matthew 15:14) are pulling people into the abyss. Instead of the church leaders and pastors raising their voices and warning people (Isaiah 58: 1), they lead them into global ecumenism, back to the mother church of Rome. The prerequisite for membership in the national (ACK) and international (WCC) ecumenical organizations is acceptance of the Trinity Doctrine. To these teachers and leaders, the words of Yahushuah still apply today:

“Woe to you scribes, for you have taken away the key of knowledge! You yourself did not go in, and you prevented those who wanted to go in! ”(Luke 11:52)

As the above scriptures make clear, it is the "Holy Spirit of the Father" who draws people to His Son. It is not the "third God, Holy Spirit" of the Trinity deity! Whoever consciously accepts, believes and worships the Triune God is taught by the spirit of Satan.

“For there will come a time when they will not endure sound teaching, but will accumulate teachers according to their own desires, because they have sensitive ears; and they will turn their ears from the truth and turn to fables."(2 Timothy 4: 3-4)

Now is the time to be reconciled with our Almighty Heavenly Father through His Son who made possible the restoration of people to perfect states under the holy government of YehuWaH. Now is the time of grace to repent of false ideas of God and idolatry (Acts 17:30).

"Please refer, days are coming, speaks ... [JaHuWaH], there I will send a hunger into the country; not a hunger for bread, nor a thirst for water, but to hear the word ... [JaHuWaHs]. There one will waver back and forth from one sea to the other and wander around from north to east, to look for the word ... [JaHuWaHs], and yet will not find it."(Amos 8: 11-13)

A time will very soon come when the knowledge of YahuWaH can no longer be found, because YahuWaH completely withdraws his spirit from the earth and also his son will no longer act as mediator between him and the father. Protection from the seven last plagues will then only be given to the true followers of Yahushuah who are sealed with “HIS NAME” (Revelation 14,1; Revelation 9,4), “who keep the commandments of YehuWaH and have the testimony of Yahushuah, the Messiah” ( Revelation 12:17).

When the time of probation has expired for everyone and the seven “bowls of wrath” - which the seven trumpets warn against - are poured out, it will be too late. People will then recognize which “Lord” they have chosen and who is now tormenting them (Revelation 9: 10-11). JaHuWaH will completely withdraw His spirit - out of which humans have made a “third person of God, Holy Spirit” - from this earth, ie, the heavenly, restrictive power that keeps Satan and his accomplices in place will no longer exist (Revelation 7: 3; Amos 8:12). Forgiveness of sins is then no longer possible (Matthew 25: 1-13), because His son and high priest will have ended his mediatorial office and He is now allowing His "wrath" (withdrawal of the life-sustaining spirit) to fall upon humanity (Revelation 6:16 - 17), which will end with the last seven plagues (Revelation 15: 1). Anyone who is not sealed with the seal of YehuWaH will perish with the last plague at the latest (Revelation 9.4; Revelation 7).

JaHuWaH's kingdom is based on the principle of love. The character of YehuWaH, as well as his sacred law, is based on this principle. Satan has been spreading lies about the sacred character of YehuWaH since his deep fall. The Almighty's plan, therefore, is for man to know who He really is so that we can be saved and taken into his family.

"Or do you despise the riches of His goodness, patience and long-suffering, and do not realize that ... [JaHuWaHs] goodness leads you to repentance [turning of heart]? " (Romans 2,4)

"For gracious and merciful is ... [JaHuWaH], your God, and He will not turn your face from you when you turn to Him."(2 Chronicles 30,9)

We sinful people still live in this sinful world so that we can learn to understand YehuWaH's sacred principles of His kingdom. And so that we can clearly see the destructive principle according to which his adversary Satan rules. Only in this way can we make an intelligent decision: for JaHuWaH and life or for Satan and death.

“… [JaHuWaH] is close to all who call on him, to all who call on him the truth is invoke. "(Psalm 145:18)

JaHuWaH, as the ruler of the universe, wants to make every single person happy. He created everything and wants none of his creatures to be lost.

“You have an arm full of strength; your hand is strong, your right hand is held high. Right and righteousness are the foundations of your throne, grace and truth go before your face ”(Psalm 89: 14-15)

"But that is eternal life that they recognize you, the only true God [JaHuWaH], and whom you have sent ... [Yahushuah, the Messiah]." (John 17.3)

Whoever sticks to this diabolical heresy of the Triune God will not inherit eternal life and will lose the guarantee of a guarantee in the heavenly kingdom of YehuWaH. He will never know his Heavenly Father and his brother Yahushuah.


See also Trinity / Antitrinity Questions and Answers


1 Gassmann, Dr. Lothar, quoted in Ernst-Martin Borst, Dreieinigkeit, 2007

2 Catechism of the Catholic Church, nos. 253,254 and 266, 1997,

3 on the website of the Evangelical Church in Germany:

4 Jesse Lyman Hurlbut, Story of the Christian Church, 1967, p. 41

5 Robert Robinson, Ecclesiastical Researches, 1792, Chapter 6, p. 51

6 Robert McQueen Grant, Gods and the One God, p. 152. The entire 12th chapter is very instructive as to the immense influence of philosophers in the first centuries.