What does markup language mean

Markup term explanation and definition

A Markup Language - ML for short - is one Markup language. The markup is used to describe the content of document formats. In some cases, the markup also describes the process that is required to process this data. Originally, in order to be able to set a print set, typesetters needed the markups as instructions. However, there was a further development of typography, especially in relation to digital texts. Therefore, the short awards turned into complex languages.

The history of the markups

Highlighting in texts can be either bold or italic. In addition, references, headings, footnotes or paragraphs count as highlighting, which are also designed using fonts. Such structural features of texts were earlier by a Markup, so one Text markup, registered. Originally, markup was a handwritten text markup that was made on a manuscript to give the typesetter formatting instructions.

How markup works

Markup languages ​​use tags to mark the properties of texts as well as their processes or affiliations. Either words or sentences, but also entire sections, are marked here. This is Award elements. These are located in a text or in a dataset. They are both described and assigned by the tags, i.e. the various elements for marking.

For the most part it will be Source texts With UTF-8 or also with Unicode or ASCII composed. The language also offers authors the option of describing special characters. This is mostly done with the help of a Unicode. A Unicode is a numeric assignment. Special characters can also be named. So instead of µ in Latex \ mu is used, in HTML it stays with µ.

The distinguishing features and the possibilities of delimitation

In the case of markup, a distinction is made as to whether it is a markup that is only used for description, or whether a markup is used that belongs to the procedural markup languages. The pure markup languages ​​for description are DMLs, the Descriptive markup languages. The procedural markup languages ​​are referred to as PMLs, i.e. the procedural markup languages.

If the language is purely descriptive, it is used to describe information. With this, the physical and also the logical structures of documents, i.e. the Layoutsdescribed. The procedural markup languages ​​describe the presentation of the existing documents, which are either on screens or in web browsers.

The DML: Descriptive Markup Languages

The descriptive markup languages ​​are pure Descriptive languages. They include, for example HTML, WML or XAML. These are description languages ​​that are defined either in SGML or also in XML.

The LML: Lightweight Markup Languages

The Lightweight markup languages are used so that documents for wikis, forums or blogs, for example, can be created and read manually. Therefore, the simplified markup languages ​​are used to create and read these documents. This is where it is concentrated syntax the easier-to-remember elements in the LML. For the final display of the documents, these are converted into common markup languages ​​on the server. Usually XHTML or HTML are used as common markup languages.

The classic markup languages, on the other hand, are Scripting languageswhose aim is to achieve the most detailed representations possible. However, these script languages ​​are mostly generated automatically. They do not necessarily have to be readable by or used by humans. The situation is different, however, if the content has to be entered manually by humans or if it must then even be human-readable. In such cases the content can get through WYSIWYG be prepared graphically for people.

Another possibility is the direct representation in a simple markup language. If the content is created directly in a simple markup language, this has the advantage that the texts no longer have to be edited in order to be read or written. That would be the case with WYSIWYG, however. In contrast to the classic markup languages, a simplified markup does not use any Tagsthat are detailed. Only a few and otherwise unused character strings are used here. This can increase readability.

In the case of simple markup, no mandatory termination is created if possible. This is for example with the SGML elements the case. Closing tags are used here. In the case of simple markup, however, line breaks or spaces are used as separators. If an asterisk * is placed at the beginning of a line, this is a simple markup List item. This bullet becomes a typographical bullet when the markup is compiled.

Compared to the native HTML textsn is the shorter markup notation. However, the representation using this method is ambiguous. The asterisk is used, among other things, to mark footnotes. This can lead to the two functions colliding with each other. The other features in the simplified markup cause errors. The asterisk is used in some simplified markup to indicate bold text. It will asterisk used for bold at the beginning of the line, this collides with the representation for list entries.

However, a simplified markup cannot only be used for purely logical labeling. In addition to the headings and fonts such as bold fonts, the markup can also take on other functions. This includes the hyperlinks but also the tags, which are used as additional Marking options for databases be used. The databases are provided with additional information by the tags or simply categorized. However, parts of other documents can also pass through Transclusions be included. This is done through a reference.

In systems that were purely text-based, like Readme or at Emails is the case, the simplified markups have always been used to represent highlighting. As a rule, this highlighting was used for bold and italic fonts. Most of the time, a markup was developed through the use of different programs. Therefore, there are few uniform or standardized solutions. However, the functions are often similar. Hence there is Wikitextso that the various wikis can work together. But there are also attempts at standardization Creole.

In most forums, the BBCodes. The Org mode has prevailed in Emacs. Structured documentation is embedded in computer programs using POD, Plain Old Documentation or Javadoc. In the case of Textile, reStructuredText or Markdown, the focus is on other approaches.

The PML: Procedural Markup Language

Both PMLs these are descriptive page description languages. This includes TeX as a typesetting system, but also the macro packages from TeX, Latex and ConTeXt. These are also markups. With the procedural markup languages, the properties of the description languages ​​but also those of the procedural markup languages ​​are used. This procedure is also the case with PDF or PostScript, the page description languages.

The demarcation to the programming languages

Markup is just very difficult of one programming language delimitable. The properties of the programming languages ​​are also often used. This is the case with PostScript, for example. If, for example, a Lissajous figure is to be displayed using PostScript, not all of the edges of the graphic need to be in segment lists. These are also programmed by a algorithm generated during runtime. However, the goal here is to mark the data. However, this may only be generated dynamically during runtime.

Therefore the demarcation to the programming languages ​​is fluent here, since all markup languages ​​have a syntax, a semantics and also about one grammar feature. However, this is not a sufficient condition for the definition of programming languages. The difference between a programming language and a markup is the integration of elements in the programming language such as the selection, the iteration or the sequence.

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