What is worldly power


Rule pyramid of the Middle Ages:

The Pope was not officially part of society in the Holy Roman Empire, but his word legitimized the rule of the German king and, above all, made him Roman-German Emperor.

The papacy in the Middle Ages - a spiritual and secular office at the same time?

Gelasius I .:
- Worldly and spiritual power coexist
- Worldly power should be subordinate to spiritual power
Innocent III:
- Worldly and spiritual power coexist
- Worldly power is directly dependent on spiritual power
Boniface VIII:
- Secular power should renounce any claim to power
- Worldly power should be directed by spiritual power

Conclusion: In the Middle Ages, the church makes ever more extensive claims to power and demands against secular power.

Kingship in the Middle Ages - a purely secular power ?:
Worldly tasks:
- supreme judicial authority (e.g. confirmation of the death penalty)
- Protection of people and empire
- Army power and command
- Granting of fiefs to the crown vassals
Spiritual duties:
- Protection of the Church
- Destroy false believers
- Investiture of clergy by means of insignia

- The king had both worldly and spiritual obligations.

The investiture:
Key question: Pope or Emperor - who is subordinate to whom?

- Who is allowed to appoint the bishops in their office, i.e. who can actually carry out the investiture with insignia? The pope as the highest clergyman or the king / emperor as the highest prince and liege lord of the empire?
- Is the Pope allowed to interfere in the question of the succession to the throne in Germany?

The Investiture Controversy:
M1: Pope should be allowed to depose king if he violates his oath and becomes a tyrant
Reason: there is a decree according to which a priest can be prosecuted if he opposes the authority of the superior

M2: The kingdom does not belong to the Pope, but to God, and the King does not get the kingdom from the Pope but directly from God. The succession is not determined by the Pope but by succession.
Reason: Pope was arrogant when he offended King Henry IV / the prophet Daniel says "God is the kingdom, and he gives it to whoever he wants."

=> Solution of the dispute through the walk to Canossa (1077) and the Worms Concordat (1122):
With his gesture of submission in Canossa, Henry IV finally accepted that the Pope was above the emperor. Even if he later took military action against the Pope again (and failed), under his successor Heinrich V, in the Worms Concordat, the predominance of the spiritual sphere of power over the secular sphere of power was manifested up to the time of the Enlightenment.
This balance of power was not changed by the Reformation, only the spiritual sphere of power was subject to strong changes (new belief: Protestantism!), Which had an effect on the worldly sphere of power (prot. Princes evade the imperial sphere of power -> Thirty Years War!).

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